For instance, Golkonda forces under General Mir Jumla conquered Madras in 1646, massacred or sold into slavery many of the Christian European inhabitants and their allied Indian communities, and brought Madras and its immediate surroundings under his control. Although, Madraspatnam is named in later records following the establishment of Fort St. George, this is likely because of the discriminatory nature of the local caste system. We are adding more features in this app. • Its older name Madras was officially changed to Chennai in 1996. It represents the Tamil-speaking area of what was formerly the Madras Presidency of British India. Although they remained in control of the original corporations and businesses of Madras, and were the official representatives of the Imperial government, their communities size relative to the larger Indian population in Madras ensured their eventual demise should democratic control be given to Indian nationalities in place of the older Colonial charters. Upon this settlement, the English expanded their colony to include a number of other European communities, new British settlements, and various native villages, one of which was named Mudhirasa pattanam. Unmoved 7%. Elihu Yale, after whom Yale University is named, was British governor of Madras for five years. Over time, Indians also arrived in ever greater numbers and soon, the Portuguese and other non-Protestant Christian Europeans were outnumbered. The region was under the control of the Damerla Venkatadri Nayakar, a Padma Velama Nayak chieftain of Srikalahasti and Vandavasi. Dhanu. The present parts of Chennai like Poonamalee (ancient Tamil name - Poo Iruntha valli), Triplicane (ancient Tamil name - Thiru alli keni) are mentioned in Tamil bhakti literature of the 6th - 9th centuries.Thomas Pitt became the Governor of Madras in 1698 and governed for eleven years. On 20 August 1639, Francis Day of the East India Company along with Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu traveled to Chandragiri palace to meet the Vijayanagara King Peda Venkata Raya and to obtain a grant for a small strip of land in the Coromandel Coast from in Chandragiri as a place to build a factory and warehouse for their trading activities. Learn how and when to remove this template message, the British victory in the Seven Years' War, "District profile - Chennai district administration- official website", The Madras Tercentenary commemoration volume, Volume 1939, http://www.chennaicorporation.com/madras_history.htm, http://www.business-standard.com/article/news-ians/chennai-gets-unesco-recognition-for-music-117110801271_1.html, History of Fort St George and Black Town - Madras, Picasa Gallery - Historical Photos of Madras, 1921 Buckingham and Carnatic Mills Strike, 1932 Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway Strike, Chennai Metropolitan Development Authority, Veterinary and Animal Sciences University, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Research Institute, Central Institute of Plastics Engineering and Technology (India), Government Multi Super-speciality Hospital, Sri Ramachandra Medical College and Hospital, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=History_of_Chennai&oldid=998331481, Articles needing additional references from January 2009, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Narimedu (area to the west of Madraspatnam), This page was last edited on 4 January 2021, at 22:24. Nonetheless, as any purview of the city's and other major metropolitan cemeteries of India can attest, hundreds of thousands came to India between the 1600s (decade) and 1770s and later another million more came between 1770 and 1870. The capital is Chennai, in the northeastern portion of the state. As a result, during the Governorship of Elihu Yale (1687–92), the large number of British and European settlers led to the most important political event which was the formation of the institution of a Mayor and the Corporation for the city of Madras. In the same year, former Prime Minister Rajiv Gandhi was assassinated in Sriperumbudur, a small town close to Chennai, whilst campaigning in Tamil Nadu, by Thenmuli Rajaratnam A.K.A. John Binny came to Madras in 1797 and he established the textile company Binny & Co in 1814. The main difficulty, among the English those days, was a lack of money. The Pallavas were defeated by the Cholas under Aditya I by about 879 and the region was brought under the Chola rule. This place was supposedly named so by Damarla Venkatadri Nayakudu, Nayak of Vandavasi in remembrance of his father Damarla Chennappa Nayakudu. Today, Chennai also has a growing expatriate population especially from the United States, Europe and East Asia who work in the industries and IT centres. Despite lacking their original numbers and control, the original British community remnants, along with other minorities as well as the long history of British culture, keeps Madras a slightly cosmopolitan city. Bappaswami, who is considered as the ruler to rule from Kanchipuram, was himself a chieftain (of the tract around) at Kanchipuram under the Satavahana empire in the beginning of the 3rd century. This together with the written records makes it clear that the Fort which became the centre of present Chennai, was built upon or nearby the village of Madraspatnam. 36 History Part Time jobs available in Chennai, Tamil Nadu on Indeed.com. When this was accomplished with the Independence of India in 1947, they were quickly brushed aside by the Indian population. To further consolidate their position, the Company combined the various settlements around an expanded Fort St. George, which including its citadel also included a larger outside area surrounded by an additional wall. CHENNAI: A 75-year-old man was part of the nine-member team which went on two sailboats from Chennai to Puducherry two weeks ago. The original building which housed Spencer & Co. was burnt down in a fire in 1983 and the present structure houses one of the largest shopping malls in India, Spencer Plaza. During the course of the late 17th century, both plague and genocidal warfare reduced the population of the colony dramatically. However, by the early 20th century they had become a small minority in their own city. However, there are city records of their existence long afterward, and it has been suggested that the present government may still hold them. Further militating against the name "Chennai", Chennapatnam was the name in later years of an area explicitly detailed as having been incorporated of native villages, European plantations, and European merchant houses outside of the combined city of Madras consisting of Fort St. George, and White and Black Town. The bank still has its corporate headquarters in the city. The Thousand Lights Mosque of Royapettah, Chennai is among the most esteemed mosques of the city as well as the state of Tamil Nadu. [13], Various etymologies have been posited for the name, Chennai or Chennapattanam. The grant signed between Damarla Venkatadri and the English had to be authenticated or confirmed by the Raja of Chandragiri - Venkatapathy Rayulu. The Grant was for a period of two years and empowered the Company to build a fort and castle on about five square kilometers of its strip of land.[7]. [14], Chennai's earlier name of Madras is similarly mired in controversy. It is one of the twin hill stations along with Meghahatuburu. The region was then a part of the Vijayanagara Empire, then headquartered at Chandragiri in present-day Andhra Pradesh. During the reorganisation of states in India on linguistic lines, in 1953, Telugu speakers wanted Madras as the capital of Andhra Pradesh[10] and coined the slogan "Madras Manade" (Madras is ours). It is a Shaivite place of offering worships with idols and rock-cut images of Lord Shiva and other Hindu deities. The 1783 version of Fort St George is what still stands today. Instead, being the gateway of trade and the centre of the economy of the region, the English settlement and their fort of 1639–40, which was the basis for the presently named city of Chennai, was likely called Madras as well by the rest of India. Following the Treaty of Madras which brought that war to an end, the external threats to Madras significantly decreased. History of Chennai, Tamil Nadu Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India`s fourth largest city. Although the original inhabitants of Madras and responsible for its growth into the modern metropolis of today, the British and European nationals are virtually non-existent. R S Krishnasamy, better known by his pseudonym Vallikannan, whose centenary is this year, stood for freedom in contemporary Tamil literature. Under this Charter, the British and Protestant inhabitants were granted the rights of self-government and independence from company law. Both groups strived to grow their colonial populations and although their populations reached 10,000 people when the British arrived, they remained substantially outnumbered by the local Indian population. When the Portuguese arrived in 1522, they built a port and named it São Tomé, after the Christian apostle St. Thomas, who is believed to have preached there between the years 52 and 70. Sign up to receive our newsletter in your inbox every day! In turn they resettled the non-European merchants and their families and workers, almost entirely Muslim or of various Hindu castes outside of the newly expanded "White Town". Chennai Tamil: சென்னை formerly known as Madras.ogg Madras is the capital city of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. In the 17th century, the English East India Company decided to build a factory on the east coast and in 1626 selected its site as Armagon (Dugarazpatnam), a village some 35 miles north of Pulicat. Chennai Chennai Metrowater officer held for taking bribe Chennai Tamil Nadu receives 5,36,500 doses of Covishield vaccine Chennai In Chennai cafes, January opens with retro menus. Madras witnessed further political violence due to the civil war in Sri Lanka, with 33 people killed by a bomb planted by the Tamil Eelam Army at the airport in 1984, and assassination of thirteen members of the EPRLF and two Indian civilians by the rival LTTE in 1991. He was the local governor for the last Raja of Chandragiri, Sri Ranga Raya VI of Vijayanagar Empire. 15 Votes Excited 7%. He was for the language of expression that breaks away from conventional norms. Built in the early 19th century by the Wallajah family of the Carnatic rulers, it is till date a popular gathering place for the daily prayers and festive occasions like Muharram. It in honor of the later village upon which the British named the entire colony and the combined city Madras. Under Hindu caste code, as well as English Common Law, it is unlikely that Fort St. George was built upon the village of Madraspatnam and its inhabitants incorporated into the new town. Controversially, in an attempt to revise history and justify renaming the city as Chennai, the ruling party has purged the history of the early English Madras settlements. According to the new party history, instead of being named Madras, it was named Chennai, after a village called Chennapattanam, in honour of Damarla Chennapa Nayakudu, father of Damerla Venkatadri Nayakadu, who controlled the entire coastal country from Pulicat in the north to the Portuguese settlement of Santhome.[4][5]. One of the top places to know the past of Old Madras, this is also a must-visit place for the history lovers in Chennai. In 1969 Madras state was renamed as the state of Tamil Nadu. History of Chennai . They then strengthened and expanded Fort St George over the next thirty years to bear subsequent attacks, the strongest of which came from the French (1759, under Thomas Arthur, Comte de Lally), and later Hyder Ali, the Sultan of Mysore in 1767 during the First Anglo-Mysore War. Other prominent companies in the city included Gordon Woodroffe, Best & Crompton, Higginbotham's, Hoe & Co and P. Orr & Sons. [6] Ayyappa Nayakudu persuaded his brother to lease the sandy strip to Francis Day and promised him trade benefits, army protection, and Persian horses in return. Subsequently, Firmans were issued by the Mughal Emperor granting the rights of the English East India company in Madras and formally ending the official capacity of local rulers to attack the British. Chennai, formerly known as Madras, city, capital of Tamil Nadu state, southern India, on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. Sad 13%. Madras was the capital of the Madras Presidency, also called Madras Province. ABOUT CHENNAI • Madras, acquired its name from Madraspattinam which is a fishing village situated to the north of Fort St. George. All three grants are said to have been engraved on gold plates which were later reported to have been plundered, disappearing during one of the genocides of the English colony. Over time and administrative reforms, the area was finally fully incorporated into the new metropolitan charter of Madras. Clear[x] 5 ★ Rediscover History at Alamparai Fort. The 2004 tsunami lashed the shores of Chennai killing many. [50] [1] It is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. This spot also has the importance of pilgrimage tourism. Francis Day and his superior Andrew Cogan can be considered as the founders of Madras (now Chennai). Before 17th century. The grant expired, and Ivy sent Factor Greenhill on a mission to Chandragiri to meet the new Raja and to get the grant renewed. Most of these were recruited as cheap labor from the relatively poor Telugu nationality, which in turn enraged the Tamil nationals who were originally the working and middle class settlers of Madras in the late 18th century. Modern Chennai had its origins as a colonial city and its initial growth was closely tied to its importance as an artificial harbour and trading center. The capital of the province was Kancheepuram. Tamil Nadu, state of India, located in the extreme south of the country. It was built during the rule of Marathas. The first official use of the name Chennai is said to be in a sale deed, dated 8 August 1639, to Francis Day of the East India Company. In 2004, An 'Indian Ocean Tsunami' altered the coastline of Chennai permanently, killing many and leaving thousands of hundreds homeless. In 1788, Thomas Parry arrived in Madras as a free merchant and he set up one of the oldest mercantile companies in the city and one of the oldest in the country (EID Parry). It is believed that the royal women used to come here to mingle during evening. NATION'S EXISTENCE A hundred years ago, we don't have a recognized nation called India, it was all federation of various kingdoms, dynasties that defined and collectively called as region of hindustan, at some places as India. For … Following the British victory in the Seven Years' War they eventually dominated, driving the French, the Dutch and the Danes away entirely, and reducing the French dominions in India to four tiny coastal enclaves. It is dated October - November 1645. Kiriburu is a residential locale in West Singhbhum district and is situated at a height of 4,300ft from man sea level. Francis Day wrote to his headquarters at Masulipatam for permission to inspect the proposed site at Madraspatnam and to examine the possibilities of trade there. The English Factors at Masulipatam were satisfied with Francis Day's work. The Cholas who were very active during the Sangam age were entirely absent during the first few centuries. Chennai is the automobile capital of India, with around forty percent of the automobile industry having a base there and with a major portion of the nation's vehicles being produced there. Chennai has also become a major centre for outsourced IT and financial services from the Western world. Chennai, Tamil Nadu. But this time it was by the French under General La Bourdonnais, who used to be the Governor of Mauritius. Chennai History in Tamil 10.0 download - சென்னை நகரத்தில் வந்து குடி ஏறும் மக்களின் எண்ணிக்கை நாளுக்கு நாள் அதிகமாகிக் கொண்டே போகிறது. History of chennai Chennai தமிழக அரசு சென்னை Chennai day. Great 53%. Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India's fifth largest city. Beri Thimmappa, Francis Day's dubash (interpreter), was a close friend of Damarla Ayyappa Nayakudu. Each time the town and later city was rebuilt and repopulated with new English and European settlers. Kiriburu is situated in the state of Jharkhand. Popular Articles. However, it is widely recorded that while the official center of the present settlement was designated Fort St. George, the British applied the name Madras to a new large city which had grown up around the Fort including the "White Town" consisting principally of British settlers, and "Black Town" consisting of principally Catholic Europeans and allied Indian minorities. vayiratharayan of Virukanbakkam alias Chenninallur. They began construction of the Fort St George on 23 April 1640 and houses for their residence. Chennai (Madras) History. Currently, the nomenclature of the area is in a state of controversy. Owing to the city's rich musical and cultural traditions, the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO) has included Chennai in its Creative Cities Network. Lotus Mahal, also called, Chitragani Mahal and Kamal Mahal, is located in the Zenana enclosure of Hampi. Lal Mahal of Pune is one of the most famous monuments of Pune. In February 1640, Day and Cogan, accompanied by a few factors and writers, a garrison of about twenty-five European soldiers and a few other European artificers, besides a Hindu powder-maker named Naga Battan, proceeded to the land which had been granted and started a new English factory there. The Pallavas held sway over this region from the beginning of the 3rd century to the closing years of the 9th century, except for the interval of some decades when the region was under the Kalabhras. Ancient Tamil Nadu contained three monarchical states, headed by kings called Ventar and several tribal chieftaincies, headed by the chiefs called by the general denomination Vel or Velir.During the third century BCE, the Deccan was part of the Mauryan kingdom, and from the middle of the first century BCE to second century CE the same area was ruled by the Satavahana dynasty. Today, modern Chennai, formerly known as Madras is a large cultural, commercial and industrial centre, and is known for its cultural heritage and temple architecture. Several times throughout the life of the colony, the Fort became the last refuge of Europeans and their allied Indian communities due to raids by several Indian rulers and powers, which resulted in the almost total destruction of the town. Chennai is an Indian city in the south of the country. Consequently, they expanded the Chartered control of the company by encompassing the neighbouring villages of Triplicane, Egmore, Purasawalkam and Chetput to form the city of Chennapatnam, as it was called by locals then. The region then passed into the hands of the Dutch, who established themselves near Pulicat just north of the city in 1612. History. The region was often called by different names as madrapupatnam, madras kuppam, madraspatnam, and madirazpatnam as adopted by locals. Millions of people starved to death throughout British ruled Tamil Nadu, around 3.9 million people perished in Chennai alone within two years of 1877–78.[9]. Chennai, originally known as "Madras", was located in the province of Tondaimandalam, an area lying between Penna River of Nellore and the Ponnaiyar river of Cuddalore. Spencer's started as a small business in 1864 and went on to become the biggest department stores in Asia at the time. A new grant was issued, copies of which are still available. While most of the original city of Madras was built and settled by Europeans, the surrounding area which was later incorporated included the native temples of Thiruvanmiyur, Thiruvotriyur, Thiruvallikeni (Triplicane), and Thirumayilai (Mylapore) which have existed for more than 2000 years. On this piece of wasteland was founded Fort St. George, a fortified settlement of British merchants, factory workers, and other colonial settlers. The Fort still stands today, and a part of it is used to house the Tamil Nadu Legislative Assembly and the Office of the Chief Minister. The face of the new-verse movement was a frail looking writer who spoke through his strong characters. Founded in 1644 and also known as the white town, Fort St George is the place from where East India Company used to work. It is located on the Coromandel Coast of the Bay of Bengal. Because the Raja operated an arbitrary and capricious legal code which fundamentally discriminated against private property, trade, and merchandising in general, and against non-Indians in particular, the new grant signed in 1645 expanded the rights of the English by empowering them to administer English Common Law amongst their colonists and Civil Law between the colonists and the other European, Muslim, and Hindu nationalities. 162 Related Articles [filter] Aditya I. Personal Banking Manager, Rtr Bpe, Contract Manager and more! Thereafter in a nod to the declining fortunes of the British textile owners and skilled workers who were still extant in the city, the Madras Trades Association was established in 1856, by which the old colonial families still involved in the skilled and textile trades were granted entry into the British and Indian financial trade system. As a result, owing to the frequency of outbursts of racial and national violence against the Europeans and especially the English, Fort St George with its impressive fortifications became the nucleus around which the city grew and rebuilt itself. Chintadrepettah Madras City Francis Day history and heritage of Chennai city History of Chennai in 1700s. As the city is an important administrative and commercial centre, many others such as Bengalis, Punjabis, Gujaratis and Marwaris, as well as people from Uttar Pradesh and Bihar migrated to the city and have contributed to its cosmopolitan nature. The history of Chennai in Tamil , Chennai historic places Photos - http://www.ssivf.com/ssivf_cms.php?page=468 The development of a harbour in Madras led the city to become an important centre for trade between India and Europe in the 18th century. காரணம் இங்கு… As more and more Indians arrived from the countryside to work in the city, the British and other Europeans found it increasingly difficult to establish or maintain independent wealth as they had during the early East Indian regime. Earlier, Panagal Raja, Chief Minister of Madras Presidency in the early 1920s had suggested that the Cooum River be the boundary between the Tamil and Telugu administrative areas. The British also fought four wars with the Kingdom of Mysore under Hyder Ali and later his son Tipu Sultan, which led to their eventual domination of India's south. The lawyer V. Krishnaswamy Iyer made a name for himself representing claimants, mostly wealthy Hindus and Muslims who had lent money on the failed bank. Nonetheless, the Fort and its surrounding walls remained under British control who slowly rebuilt their colony with additional colonists despite another mass murder of Europeans in Black Town by anti-colonialists agitated by Golkonda and plague in the 1670s. The DMK renamed Madras to Chennai as DMK founder Anna renamed Madras State as Tamil Nadu. The app, India History, is in tamil language to read and improve our knowledge. Chennai, formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India's fifth largest city. With an estimated population of 8.9 million (2014), the 400-year-old city is the 31st largest metropolitan area in the world. In the early 17th century Beri Thimmappa of the Puragiri Kshatriya (Perike) caste migrated to the locality from Palacole, near Machilipatnam in Andhra Pradesh. Additionally, the pre-city area of Chennai has a long history within the records of South Indian Empires. With an estimated population of 8.9 million (2014), the 400-year-old city is the 31st largest metropolitan area in the world. Breaking with the tradition of the closed and almost wholly British controlled system of the English East India Company, The Madras Chamber of Commerce was founded in 1836 by Fredrick Adam, Governor of the Madras Presidency (the second oldest Chamber of Commerce in the country). In 1639, the local Indian rulers granted the East India Company a parcel of land upon which a fort was built as a residence for British settlers. It is a major manufacturing centre. As a result, over time, the area came to be known as 'White Town'. The history of Chennai dates back to the time of megalithic cultural establishment, according to the evidence found by the archaeological department. Chennai, Formerly known as Madras, is the capital of the state of Tamil Nadu and is India's fifth largest city.wikipedia. 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