They painted heroic characters like Tipu Sultan and Rani Lakshmibai. The city name Calcutta is derived from word Kalighat. Although woodblock printing on fabrics has been in India for centuries, the paper adaptation of woodblock printing appeared relatively late, because of the late entry and early exit due to advent of lithography the Battala woodcut printing had a remarkably short run. He was also the first major exponent of Swadeshi values in Indian art, thereby founding the influential Bengal school of art, which led to the development of modern Indian painting. Indian painting has a very long tradition and history in Indian art, though because of the climatic conditions very few early examples survive. An important achievement of the Kalighat artistes was that they made simple paintings and drawings, which could easily be reproduced by lithography. With the … Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century Bengal, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat, Kolkata, India, and from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. These paintings were done on cloth or patas. These artists, called patuas or ‘painters on cloth’. But the Kalighat artists did not restrict themselves to religious themes. Another theme depicted, dear to the Bengali ethos, was that of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu and his disciples. As a part of the Bengal Presidency, it also hosted the region's most advanced political and cultural centers during British rule. Mukul Chandra Dey was one of five children of Purnashashi Devi and Kula Chandra Dey. He was a student of Rabindranath Tagore's Santiniketan and is considered as a pioneer of drypoint-etching in India. The Kalighat School was an agreeable and unique blend of two different styles of painting—the Oriental and the Occidental—and steadily gained popularity. The conquest of Bengal by the Gupta dynasty led the ingress of the northern Indian culture into the ancient Bangladeshi culture which eventually introduced the tradition of theatre in Bangladesh. Pattachitra or Patachitra is a general term for traditional, cloth-based scroll painting, based in the eastern Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal. They painted historic characters like Rani Lakshmibai, and Duldul the famous horse of Imam Hussain of Karbala. Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century Bengal, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat, Kolkata, India, and from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. In the nineteenth century, the only school of painting that was flourishing in Bengal was the traditional art of scroll paintings that was popular in the rural areas. Today, they practice customs that are both Hindu and Islamic in nature. He was born in Dhaka, Bengal Presidency. [21] Archer’s insistence on Western influence on Kalighat paintings is further weakened by flaws in his methodology. Following his appointment to the painting department in 1951, he proceeded to define the school's character by imbuing it with the vision of his former teacher Binode Bihari Mukherjee, a pioneer of modern art in India.. The family members or the community members, would sit together and ground the ingredients to make the dyes, colors and some would draw the outlines of the main figures in the painting and while others would … The charm of the Kalighat paintings lies in the fact that they captured the essence of daily life and they influence modern artistes like the late Jamini Roy even to this day. Subramanyan embodied both. It is said to be developed in the vicinity of the iconic Kalighat Kali Temple on the bank of the Burin Ganga in the city of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta). Bengal was considered to be the richest part of Islamic medieval India and during the era of the Bengal Sultanate it was described to be a world major trading nation, while during Mughal times, having triggered the proto-industrialization, its economy was worth 12% of global GDP. The artists also chose to portray secular themes and personalities and in the process played a role in the Independence movement. It is unique blends of oriental and occidental style of painting. Bengal has a recorded history of 1,400 years. Pattachitras are a component of an ancient Bengali narrative art, originally serving as a visual device during the performance of a song. Gradually, they started to learn from the newer techniques and discovered that these could help them increase their earnings. Theatre in Bangladesh is believed to have its origin in the 4th century AD in the form of Sanskrit drama. Popularly known as "Davidbabu", in his short life, he made a major contribution to the study of Hindu terracotta and brick temples of Bengal and was also one of the first scholars to write a study of the emerging field of Indian writing in English. Kalighat paintings reached its zenith between 1850 and 1890 with representations of varied styles, compositions, and colours. Kalighat Paintings: The Story of their Origin When the British invaded India they were fascinated by the literary and artistic culture of the country. Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century West Bengal, India, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat, Calcutta, India, and from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a … Drawings and Paintings of Kalighat by Mukul Dey, The Painters of Kalighat: 19th Century Relics of a Once Flourishing Indian Folk Art Killed by Western Mass Production Methods by Mukul Dey, Bengal Engineering and Science University, Shibpur, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, https://infogalactic.com/w/index.php?title=Kalighat_painting&oldid=721848276, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, About Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. Kalighat painting. He was one of the most famous pupils of Abanindranath Tagore, whose artistic originality and contribution to the emergence of art in India remains questionable. 3. A novel programme required formidable leadership and teachers with pedagogical values. This trend continued up to the early part of the twentieth century and these paintings ended up in museums and private collections. Religious themes (Oriental art) were the primary subject matter but the contemporary society (Occidental art) – especially the babu culture also provided a great deal of visual material to the artists. The Bengali people are its dominant ethnolinguistic tribe. Kalighat Painting originated in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat (Kolkata, India) in 19 th century. Popularly known as 'Aban Thakur', his books Rajkahini, Budo Angla, Nalak, and Khirer Putul were landmarks in Bengali language children's literature and art. Gradually, they have started to learn from the newer techniques and discovered that these could help them increase their earnings. The paintings of Kalighat have a chequered history and reflect a delightful blend of the traditional oriental art with Indian occidental influences. Such prints were then hand coloured. The Patua are an artisan community found in the state of West Bengal, Bihar, Jharkhand and Odisha in India and parts of Bangladesh. Battala woodcut prints are the woodcut relief prints produced in the Battala region of Calcutta. Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century Bengal, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat, Kolkata, India, and from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. Kalighat painting usually portrayed a variety of themes, based on these themes these paintings are classified into two styles namely Oriental and Occidental. Kalighat painting is perhaps one of the best primary sources to reconstruct the social history of the19th Century ‘Babu culture’ which flourished in Calcutta. Even contemporary events like crime were the subject of many paintings. The Oriental Kalighatpaintings depict gods, goddesses, mythological characters as well as scenes from religious Hindu texts. Pattachitra is one of the ancient artworks of Odisha, originally created for ritual use and as souvenirs for pilgrims to Puri, as well as other temples in Odisha. The delightful blend of the oriental and occidental styles is another feature that this form gain recognition all over the world. It is believed that most Patuas are actually converts from Hinduism to Islam. Originally named Bijoy Chandra, Manishi was the fifth child, and third son, of Purnashashi Devi and Kula Chandra Dey. Initially sold as items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. K.G. It is one of the famous Hindu temples where … Kalighat painting. Images of Durga, Lakshmi, and Annapurna were also popular, especially during the Durga Puja festival. The main distinguishing facet of the Kalighat paintings is the motifs used in them. He was also a noted writer, particularly for children. Hindu Patuas are active in the Kalighat and Kumartuli regions of Calcutta, along with some other parts of West Bengal, where they are reduced in number. Meanwhile, the British, having established themselves in the country politically started to evince interest in art, literature, and music. Shop unique custom made Canvas Prints, Framed Prints, Posters, Tapestries, and more. The Occidental school of Kalighat paintings depicts the day to day life of common people. The music of West Bengal includes multiple indigenous musical genres such as Baul, Ramprasadi, Bishnupuri Classical, Kirtan, Shyama Sangeet, Rabindra Sangeet, Nazrul Geeti, Dwijendrageeti, Prabhati Sangeet, Agamani-Vijaya, Patua Sangeet, Gambhira, Bhatiali, Bhawaiya, Bengali Rock. Learn how and when to remove this template message, Bengali language Movement (North Dinajpur), Drawings and Paintings of Kalighat by Mukul Dey, The Painters of Kalighat: 19th Century Relics of a Once Flourishing Indian Folk Art Killed by Western Mass Production Methods by Mukul Dey. Only natural dyes are used in Kalamkari, which involves twenty-three steps. Kalighat-style paintings by Jamini Roy. Initially these artists were concentrated around the temple at Kalighat where there was a demand for religious art. Even contemporary events like crime were the subject of many paintings. Kalighat painting emerged in the 19th century of Calcutta, West Bengal, India in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali temple. The charm of the Kalighat paintings lies in the fact that they captured the essence of daily life and they influence modern artists like the late Jamini Roy even to this day. Pattachitra artform is known for its intricate details as well as mythological narratives and folktales inscribed in it. He was honoured with the State award of Padma Bhushan in 1955. The Kalighat style of painting emerged around the Kali temple in Calcutta simultaneously. He died in Kolkata at the height of his career at 56 years of age. Kalighat is a locality of Kolkata, in Kolkata district, West Bengal, India. Images (2) Jeune femme du Bengal, Calcutta, 1913 (1913) [Jeunes femmes du Bengal, Calcutta, 1913] (1913) Documents (Bengale-Occidental (Inde)) (2 … The other more contemporary style of Kalighat paintings are the Occidental variety that feature secular and civil themes like crime, women bathing, the evolving role of men and women in the society since the emphasis on women’s education, the hypocritical lives of the quasi-bourgeois, depictions of the freedom struggle, heroes of the struggle including Rani Lakshmi Bai, a girl playing the sitar and other themes … The Calcutta School of Art was one such school and attracted traditional artists–the patuas—to the city. Their two sisters, Annapura and Rani, were accomplished in arts and crafts as well. Kalighat is a Hindu temple dedicated to Goddess Kali. Therefore emerged two different styles of the Kalighat painting, the Oriental, and the Occidental. Oriental style portrays the Indian deities, Hindu Gods and Goddesses, mythological characters and scenes from different epics while Occidental style depicts the everyday life, social evils, crimes, and freedom struggle etc. The alternate discipline of Kalighat painting, known as the “Occidental school,” included pieces that depicted ordinary people engaging in everyday life or captured the changes taking place in Kolkata at the time. Initially, these artists were concentrated around the temple at Kalighat where there was a demand for religious art. The earliest Indian paintings were the rock paintings of prehistoric times, such as the petroglyphs found in places like Bhimbetka rock shelters. The paintings can be found in Victoria Memorial Hall in Kolkata and the Naprstek Museum in Prague. The artists played an important role in the Independence movement through the depiction of secular themes and personalities in their paintings. Gaganendranath Tagore was an Indian painter and cartoonist of the Bengal school. The painting originated as a souvenir item associated with the Kali temple of Kalighat.Initially the paintings portrayed Goddess Kali and her tales of defeating the demons. These artists, called patuas or ‘painters on cloth’ were said to be half Hindu and half Muslim and practised Islam. The Calcutta School of Art was one such school and attracted traditional artists–the patuas—to the city. These paintings were a part of the Occidental school of Kalighat paintings while the painting with religious and mythological themes was under the Oriental school of Kalighat painting. Such prints were then hand coloured. The artists were villagers who travelled from place to place with their scroll paintings and sang the scenes from the epics depicted in the paintings during village gatherings and various festivals. The Battala woodcuts were printed on a very cheap newsprint like paper to keep the cost of these prints low. The Occidental school produced paintings that depicted social and political situations brewing in the 19th century- scenes of crimes, women or men feeding their pet cats, birds, and animals, men traveling by elephants, … Some of the most popular motifs from this type include Rama-Sita, Radha-Krishna, goddess Durga, goddess Laksmi, goddess Annapurna, Hanuman, Shiva and Parvati, among others. Kalighat temple was considered the main centre around which the traditional artists called ‘the pataus’ or ‘painters of cloth’ concentrated. In the 19th century, the only school of painting that was flourishing in Bengal was the traditional art of scroll paintings that was popular in the rural areas. The Bengal School of Art commonly referred as Bengal School, was an art movement and a style of Indian painting that originated in Bengal, primarily Kolkata and Shantiniketan, and flourished throughout the Indian subcontinent, during the British Raj in the early 20th century. The Kalighat Paintings are watercolor paintings done on mill-made paper by the scroll painters-cum-potters that migrated from rural Bengal to the city of Calcutta in the nineteenth century. Meanwhile, the British, having established themselves in the country politically started to evince interest in art, literature, and music. Indian court painting, 16th-19th century. These style of paintings depicted contemporary society usually under satirical scrutiny. The style is characterized by broad sweeping brush lines, bold colours, and simplification of forms suitable for their mass production.. In this exercise I also learnt emulation is the best way of learning, hence to get a hands on experience I emulated an occidental Kalighat painting. Abanindranath Tagore was the principal artist and creator of the "Indian Society of Oriental Art". Kalighat Painting. The artistes were villagers who travelled from place to place with their scroll paintings and sang the scenes from the epics depicted in the paintings during village gatherings and festivals. But the Kalighat artists did not restrict themselves to religious themes. Occidental- Occidental Kalighat paintings depict the day-to-day chores a nd lives of people, the stories of the warriors and fighters during the Independence like that of Rani Lakshmi Bai”. Today, however, the majority of them are impoverished Muslims who rely on patronage from mainly Hindus, but also increasingly from tourists who buy their painted scrolls, as Frank J. Korom has described and analysed in his book Village of Painters: Narrative Scrolls from West Bengal. One of the oldest neighbourhoods in South Kolkata, Kalighat is also densely populated — with a history of cultural intermingling with the various foreign incursions into the area over time. Occidental- The Occidental Kalighat Paintings These paintings depict the day-to-day chores and lives of people, the stories of the warriors and fighters during the Independence like that of Rani Lakshmi Bai. As the name suggests, Kalighat paintings were created around the Kali temple in Kolkata, on the banks or ghat of the Ganga. Please help this article by looking for better, more reliable sources. Their paintings depicting different professions and costumes were also popular with tourists. From the depiction of Hindu gods, god, and other mythological characters, the Kalighat paintings developed to reflect a variety of subjects, including many depictions of everyday life. Kalighat paintings were made by the patua community, the paintings depict gods and daily lifestyle of people. High-quality Occidental Wall Art designed and sold by artists. Because of the short run, cheap paper and humid conditions of the region very few of these prints have survived. Their paintings depicting different professions and costumes were also popular with the tourists. Some Patuas are Hindus, while others are Muslims. David McCutchion was an English-born academic, and a pioneer in a number of original strands of scholarship in Indian studies before his early death at age 41. Script error: The function "getCommonsLink" does not exist. Painted mostly on inexpensive mill-made paper or cloth with swift brushstrokes and homemade dyes, traditional Kalighat paintings originated in the 19th century. They started creating new forms of art and the Kalighat painting was born. They set up institutions that imparted a European style of academic training to Indian artists. Unreliable citations may be challenged or deleted. In these mocking pieces, the austerity of Kalighat paintings is wedded to the simplicity of Japanese prints. They depicted conventional images of gods and goddesses and scenes from epics like Tulsidas’ Rama Charita Manas. Oriental Style - The word ‘oriental ’ literally means something belonging to Asia and thus being true to its meaning, this style of painting derives its ideas and themes from religious and mythological tales of the Indian culture. From Infogalactic: the planetary knowledge core. The Indian state of West Bengal has a rich cultural and artistic heritage. During its manifestation, in the earlier days, it was a community effort. Kalighat painting originated in the 19th century Kolkata, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple of Kalighat. While images of Hindu deities dominated the artist’s impressions, Islamic themes featuring prophets, angels and taziyas (tomb models) and other secular depictions were set … Kalighat’s paintings were developed in the 19th century around the Kali temple, Kalighat, in Calcutta. Bengalis tend to have a special appreciation for art and literature. Kalighat paintings were simple which could be reproduced by lithography. Also known as 'Indian style of painting' in its early days, it was associated with Indian nationalism (swadeshi) and led by Abanindranath Tagore (1871-1951), but was also promoted and supported by British arts administrators like E. B. Havell, the principal of the Government College of Art, Kolkata from 1896; eventually it led to the development of the modern Indian painting. Kalighat painting or Kalighat Pat originated in the 19th century in West Bengal, India, in the vicinity of Kalighat Kali Temple, Kalighat, Calcutta, India, and from being items of souvenir taken by the visitors to the Kali temple, the paintings over a period of time developed as a distinct school of Indian painting. Spurred by Mukherjee's emphasis on Indian folk … The artists also portrayed themes like Sita-Rama, Radha-Krishna and the exploits of Hanuman. I chose Kalighat paintings to depict my journey. They depicted conventional images of gods and goddesses and scenes from epics like Tulsidas’ Rama charita manas. Some of the Stone Age rock paintings found among the Bhimbetka rock shelters are approximately 10,000 years old. 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